Open Letter Supporting the Full Inclusion of Transgender and All LGBTQI+ Youth

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In Support of Full Inclusion for Transgender and All LGBTQI+ Youth: An Open Letter from the Civil and Human Rights Community

On behalf of The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights, a coalition charged by its diverse membership of more than 230 national organizations to promote and protect the civil and human rights of all persons in the United States, and the 152 undersigned organizations, we call for the full inclusion, protection, and celebration of transgender and non-binary youth, including access to extracurricular activities such as athletics and to school facilities, safe and inclusive school environments, accurate and inclusive curriculum, and gender-affirming school health services. We reject the bigoted, ignorant, mean-spirited, and discriminatory policies currently being considered by far too many state legislatures that seek to exclude transgender people and make these members of our communities invisible. Targeting and excluding transgender students from participation in school programming, including athletics programs, alongside their cisgender[1] peers is harmful to all students and undermines the learning environment for everyone. If schools mark some students effectively as outcasts, they foster an environment where no student is included and safe.

Currently, there is an unprecedented wave of proposed and enacted laws across the country that aim to make participating in school intolerable for LGBTQI+ students and especially transgender students. These laws aim to shut transgender youth out of school activities such as sports, to ban them from school facilities such as restrooms, to prohibit discussion of their very existence in classrooms, and to punish educators and families who help young people access necessary gender-affirming care.[2] These proposals seek to punish and harm a population of young people already marginalized by stigma, bullying, and harassment.[3],[4],[5] We, the civil and human rights community, support the full inclusion and protection of transgender and non-binary youth. We are fortunate that transgender people are present in our community, and we fully embrace them as members of our community. As organizations that care deeply about ending sex-based discrimination and ensuring equal educational opportunities, we support laws and policies that protect transgender people from discrimination, including participation in sports, access to gender-affirming care, access to school facilities, and access to inclusive curriculum. We firmly believe that an attack on transgender youth is an attack on civil rights.

A multitude of bills seeking to exclude transgender youth and youth born with intersex traits from athletics would harm both cisgender and transgender girls and women, particularly Black and Brown girls and women.[6],[7] These laws are likely to violate both the U.S. Constitution and Title IX, putting states’ federal educational funding in jeopardy. We reject the suggestion that girls and women who are cisgender benefit from the exclusion of girls and women who are transgender or intersex.[8] State leaders who care about women’s and girls’ sports should reject these bills and instead focus on closing the gender and racial disparities in athletics opportunities and participation and on protecting student athletes from sexual abuse.[9]

Transgender students face disproportionately high rates of sex discrimination at school, including sexual assault and harassment or bullying because of their gender identity and gender expression.[10] Transgender and non-binary people of color face even deeper and broader patterns of discrimination than their White transgender peers.[11] Bills that would exclude transgender and intersex students from athletics would further deprive transgender students of access to educational opportunities and could place them at greater risk of sexual assault.[12] With violence — including physical and sexual assaults and murders — against transgender women at an epidemic level,[13] these bills only serve to create an unsafe educational environment for transgender youth, while sending children the message that transgender people — and transgender girls and women in particular — are not entitled to the equal treatment, dignity, and respect they are taught other people deserve. Simply put, preventing transgender and intersex girls and women from participating in school athletics is a recipe for more trauma, bullying, and violence.[14]

Not only do these proposals harm students and limit educational opportunity, the discrimination they endorse is illegal. The U.S. Supreme Court and numerous federal courts have held that discrimination on the basis of gender identity and transgender status is a form of sex discrimination, including when it occurs in gender-separated education programs and facilities.[15] The Biden-Harris administration has made clear that it intends to enforce Title IX consistent with the Supreme Court’s holding in Bostock v. Clayton County, which holds that discrimination on the basis of gender identity is a form of sex discrimination.[16]

The trend of state bills excluding transgender students from athletics is a false solution in search of a nonexistent problem. For more than a decade, state athletic associations around the country have implemented eligibility policies that ensure transgender student athletes can compete consistent with their gender identity. Those inclusive polices have benefited all students, including cisgender girls and women.[17] There is no evidence that the participation of transgender girls and women has affected the level of play in states with inclusive policies.[18] Furthermore, girls’ athletics participation has increased or stayed the same in those states that have inclusive sports policies, while girls’ athletics participation has declined in states with discriminatory policies.[19]

Lawmakers and officials in some states have also sought to ban widely accepted medical care for transgender youth, and to criminalize their families as well as school staff and other adults who help them access this necessary care.[20] Other laws recently proposed or enacted by some states seem to ban transgender students from using the same school facilities as their peers; to ban discussion of their very existence from the classroom; and to force educators to punish students for coming out at school by outing them at home, even if they may be abused as a result. State leaders who care about life-saving care should reject these bills and instead ensure all families and young people can access medically necessary health care.[21]

Transgender students face disproportionately high rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors,[22] and bills that shut people out of gender-affirming care threaten their safety, health, and wellbeing. Research shows that gender-affirming care provides long-term mental health benefits for transgender people,[23] including a reduction in suicidal ideation and attempts.[24]

While state laws banning discussion of LGBTQI+ people’s lives and contributions in schools were repealed or overturned in recent years, several states have now rushed to pass new “Don’t Say Gay or Trans” laws.[25] For example, Florida’s “Don’t Say Gay or Trans” law makes it illegal, in some cases, and otherwise creates new and vague barriers to discussing LGBTQI+ topics, including the existence of transgender people.[26] We’ve seen this move before, and research shows that the ”no promo homo” laws now being revived contribute to a hostile school climate. [27] LGBTQI+ youth in states with these laws are more likely to experience harassment and assault based on their sexual orientation and gender expression than LGBTQI+ youth in states without these laws.[28] In addition to reducing harassment, inclusive curriculum in courses such as health education is essential for LGBTQI+ youth to make informed decisions about their health and future, and avoid potential adverse health outcomes.[29] LGBTQ youth who found their school to be LGBTQ-affirming have reported significantly lower rates of attempting suicide.[30] All students deserve access to an education that affirms their own identity and deserve the opportunity to see themselves and their families reflected in their school’s curriculum.

We support the full inclusion, protection, and celebration of transgender youth, including access to school facilities and extracurricular activities such as athletics, gender-affirming care, and inclusive curriculum, because all young people deserve safe, healthy, and inclusive environments. Transgender and non-binary youth deserve the chance to succeed and thrive like any other child.

We call on state policymakers to reject attacks on transgender and non-binary youth, to commit themselves to meaningfully advancing policies that support equal opportunity, [31] and to reassure all students in the nation’s classrooms that they will have the chance to learn, grow, and thrive. If you have any questions, please reach out to Steven Almazán, k12 education senior program manager at The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights, at [email protected].


National Organizations:

The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights

The Leadership Conference Education Fund

ADL (Anti-Defamation League)


American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education

American Association of University Women

American Atheists

American Federation of Teachers

American Psychological Association

Americans for Democratic Action (ADA)

Americans United for Separation of Church and State

Asian Americans Advancing Justice | AAJC

Athlete Ally

Autistic People of Color Fund

Autistic Self Advocacy Network

Autistic Women & Nonbinary Network

Campus Pride

Center for Disability Rights

Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP)

Center for LGBTQ Economic Advancement & Research (CLEAR)

Center for Reproductive Rights

CenterLink: The Community of LGBT Centers

Clearinghouse on Women’s Issues


Community Catalyst

Disability Rights Advocates

Disability Rights Education & Defense Fund

End Citizens United / Let America Vote Action Fund

End Rape On Campus

Equal Justice Society

Equal Rights Advocates

Equality Federation

Faculty Against Rape

Family Equality

Feminist Majority Foundation


Forward Latino

GLMA: Health Professionals Advancing LGBTQ Equality


Harvard Law School LGBTQ+ Advocacy Clinic

Hispanic Federation

Human Rights Campaign


Impact Fund

interACT: Advocates for Intersex Youth

Japanese American Citizens League

Juvenile Law Center

Know Your IX, Advocates for Youth

Labor Council for Latin American Advancement

Lambda Legal

LatinoJustice PRLDEF

Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights Under Law

League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC)

Legal Aid at Work

Legal Momentum, the Women’s Legal Defense and Education Fund

LGBTQ & Equity Consulting, LLC

LPAC Action Network

MALDEF (Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund)

Many Voices


Modern Military Association of America


Movement Advancement Project


NARAL Pro-Choice America

National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP)

National Association of Social Workers

National Black Justice Coalition

National Center for Learning Disabilities

National Center for Lesbian Rights

National Center for Parent Leadership, Advocacy, and Community Empowerment (National PLACE)

National Center for Transgender Equality

National Center for Youth Law

National Coalition Against Domestic Violence

National Council of Jewish Women

National Crittenton

National Disability Rights Network (NDRN)

National Education Association

National Employment Law Project

National Indian Education Association

National Juvenile Justice Network

National LGBTQ Task Force

National LGBTQ Task Force Action Fund

National Organization for Women

National Resource Center on Domestic Violence

National Urban League

National Women’s Law Center

OCA – Asian Pacific American Advocates

People For the American Way

PFLAG National

Positive Women’s Network-USA

Public Justice

Robert F. Kennedy Human Rights


SPLC Action

Tahirih Justice Center

The Advocates for Human Rights

The Education Trust

The General Board of Church and Society of The United Methodist Church

The Sentencing Project

The Sikh Coalition

The Trevor Project


True Colors United


Ujima Inc., The National Center on Violence Against Women in the Black Community


Union for Reform Judaism

URGE: Unite for Reproductive & Gender Equity

Victim Rights Law Center

Whitman-Walker Institute


State & Local Organizations:

Arizona Coalition to End Sexual and Domestic Violence

Catalyst Miami


Center for Sustainable Communities

Chicago Alliance Against Sexual Exploitation (CAASE)

Colorado Children’s Campaign

Colorado Justice Advocacy Network

Disability Law Center

Disability Law Colorado

Disability Rights Arkansas

Disability Rights California

Disability Rights Florida

Disability Rights New York

Disability Rights Oregon

Disability Rights South Carolina

Disability Rights Tennessee

Disability Rights Vermont

Education Law Center-PA

Equality California

Florida Faith Advocacy Office

Florida Health Justice Project

Illinois Coalition Against Sexual Assault

Indiana Disability Rights

Indianapolis Urban League

Iowa Coalition Against Sexual Assault

Los Angeles LGBT Center


Maine Parent Federation

Mazzoni Center

Men Stopping Violence, Inc.

New Orleans Youth Alliance

North Carolina Justice Center

Oasis Legal Services

Project Butterfly New Orleans

SEIU Local 500

Silver State Equality-Nevada

Tennessee Justice Center

The Parents’ Place of MD

Urban League of Greater Atlanta

Women’s Law Project



[1] Transgender people are people whose gender identity is different from the gender they were thought to be at birth. Cisgender people are people whose gender identity is the same as the gender assigned at birth. For more information see:, and

[2] There are more than 150 bills active in state legislatures targeting transgender students, including the restriction of healthcare for transgender youth, single-sex facility restrictions, the exclusion of transgender youth from athletics, other school or curriculum restrictions, and restrictions on accessing accurate identification. Source: ACLU, Legislation Affecting LGBTQ Rights Across the Country (May 13, 2022), available at

[3] National Center for Transgender Equality, The Report of the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey 4, 11 (2017) [USTS Report], available at

[4] Sixteen states have passed laws barring transgender students from participating on the school athletic team or program that aligns with their gender identities and many have implemented discriminatory regulations. GLSEN. (2022). GLSEN Navigator: Trans and Nonbinary Athletic Inclusion Policies. Available at: (Accessed May 4, 2022)

GLSEN, Gender Affirming and Inclusive Athletics Participation (May 2022), available at

[5] One state has passed an anti-trans bathroom bill prohibiting transgender students from using the school bathroom that aligns with their gender identities and six other states introduced similar bills. Alabama’s anti-trans bathroom bill was signed into law in April 2022 (see H.B. 322). Other bills introduced in 2022 include: H.B.2314 (Arizona); S.F.224 (Iowa); S.B.1249 (Oklahoma); S.B.1164 (Oklahoma); H.B.1005 (South Dakota); H.B. 1126 (Virginia); H.B.3199 (West Virginia). With the exception of West Virginia, these bills also prohibit use of the locker rooms that align with students’ gender identities.

[6] List of bills active in state legislatures excluding transgender students from athletics:

H.B. 230 (Arkansas); S.B. 1046, S.B. 1165 (Arizona); S.B 227 (Delaware); H.B. 7 (Florida); H.B. 276, H.B. 372, S.B. 266, S.B. 435 (Georgia); H.B. 1304 (Hawaii); H.F. 184, H.F. 2309, H.F. 2416, S.F. 2342 (Iowa); H.B. 1041 (Indiana); S.B. 208, S.B. 484 (Kansas); H.B. 23, H.B. 247, S.B. 83 (Kentucky); S.B. 44 (Louisiana); H.B. 0757 (Maryland); S.B. 218, (Michigan); H.F. 350, H.F. 352, H.F. 1657, H.F. 4282 (Minnesota); S.B. 740, H.B. 2461, H.B. 2735, H.B. 2734, H.B. 2140, H.B. 1973 (Missouri); S.B. 2111, S.B. 2310 (Mississippi); H.B. 198 (New Hampshire); A 1630, S. 589 (New Jersey); H.B. 61, S.B. 132 (Ohio); S.B. 331, S.B. 2, H.B. 4245 (Oklahoma); H.B. 972 (Pennsylvania); S. 2501 (Rhode Island); S.B. 531, H.B. 4608, H.B. 3477 (South Carolina); H.B. 1006, S.B. 46 (South Dakota); H.B. 1894, S.B. 1862, S.B. 2153, H.B. 2316, H.B. 1895, S.B. 1861 (Tennessee); H.B. 11, H.B. 3002 (Utah); S.B. 766 (Virginia); A.B. 195, S.B. 323, A.B. 196, S.B. 322 (Wisconsin); H.B. 2141, H.B. 2676, H.B. 2734, S.B. 341 (West Virginia); S.F. 0051 (Wyoming).

Source: ACLU, Legislation Affecting LGBT Rights Across the Country: Excluding transgender youth from athletics (May 13, 2022), available at

[7] The many bills seeking to exclude transgender students—and in many cases, specifically transgender girls and women—from school athletics are already having a negative impact on the mental health and wellbeing of all LGBTQ+ youth and particularly those who are transgender and nonbinary. A 2022 poll conducted by Morning Consult found that two-thirds of LGBTQ+ youth report that the recent debates about state laws restricting the rights of transgender people has impacted their mental health negatively. This impact is even more dramatic among transgender and/or non-binary youth where more than four in five of them (85%) report it has impacted their mental health negatively. The Trevor Project. (2022). “Issues Impacting LGBTQ Youth: Polling Analysis.” (Accessed May 4, 2022).

[8] LGBTQ+ students who are intersex will likely experience increased incidents of discrimination and harassment as these laws

tacitly sanction scrutiny of students’ sex characteristics. The same inappropriate scrutiny may adversely impact cisgender girls

and women as research indicates that excluding transgender athletes is associated with a decrease in sports participation among

all girls and women. Brief of interACT: Advocates for Intersex Youth, et al., as Amicus Curiae in Support of Respondent,

Gloucester County School Board v. G.G. ex rel. Grimm, No. 16-273 (U.S. Mar. 2, 2017). See also: interACT: Advocates for

Youth. (2022). Public Comment Re: Mandatory Civil Rights Data Collection (86 FR 70831; ED-2021-SCC-0158). (accessed May 4, 2022). Center for American Progress, Fair

Play: The Importance of Sports Participation for Transgender Youth 14-16 (Feb. 8, 2021), available at

[9] LGBTQ+ students are half as likely as non-LGBTQ students to participate in both interscholastic (40.2% vs. 19.2%) and intramural sports (35.8% vs. 15.9%), with transgender students reporting the lowest levels of participation. Clark, C. M., Kosciw, J. G., & Chin, J. (2021). LGBTQ Students and School Sports Participation (Research Brief). New York: GLSEN. Available at Kosciw, J. G., Clark, C. M., Truong, N. L., & Zongrone, A. D. (2020). The 2019 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer youth in our nation’s schools, p. 93-106. New York: GLSEN.

[10] USTS Report, available at Kosciw, J. G., Clark, C. M., Truong, N. L., & Zongrone, A. D. (2020). The 2019 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer youth in our nation’s schools, p. 96. New York: GLSEN. Available at

The CDC’s Youth Risk Behavior Survey has also found that transgender students report disproportionately high rates of bullying at school but does not ask specifically about why students were bullied. Johns, M. M., Lowry, R., Andrzejewski, J., Barrios, L. C., Demissie, Z., McManus, T., … & Underwood, J. M. (2019). Transgender identity and experiences of violence victimization, substance use, suicide risk, and sexual risk behaviors among high school students—19 states and large urban school districts, 2017. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 68(3):67–71. DOI: (Accessed May 3, 2022)

[11] In states where these discriminatory bills have passed into law, transgender students who are Black, Indigenous, and people of

color (BIPOC) will experience compounding harm as transgender people of color face even deeper and broader patterns of

discrimination than do their White transgender peers. For example, GLSEN’s national survey research has found that LGBTQ+

students who are BIPOC commonly experience both anti-LGBTQ+ and racist victimization in schools.

See: Truong, N. L., Zongrone, A. D., & Kosciw, J. G. (2020).

Erasure and resilience: The experiences of LGBTQ students of color, Asian American and Pacific Islander LGBTQ young people

in U.S. Schools. New York: GLSEN. (Accessed May 3, 2022).

Truong, N. L., Zongrone, A. D., & Kosciw, J. G. (2020). Erasure and resilience: The experiences of LGBTQ students of color,

Black LGBTQ young people in U.S. Schools. New York: GLSEN.

(Accessed May 3, 2022).

Zongrone, A. D., Truong, N. L., & Kosciw, J. G. (2020). Erasure and resilience: The experiences of LGBTQ students of color, Latinx LGBTQ young people in U.S. Schools. New York: GLSEN. (Accessed May 3, 2022).

Zongrone, A. D., Truong, N. L., & Kosciw, J. G. (2020). Erasure and resilience: The experiences of LGBTQ students of color, Native and Indigenous LGBTQ young people in U.S. Schools. New York: GLSEN. (Accessed May 3, 2022).

[12] Diane Ehrensaft & Stephen M. Rosenthal, Sexual Assault Risk and School Facility Restrictions in Gender Minority Youth, 143 Pediatrics 1 (May 6, 2019),

[13] See:

[14] Transgender students already face incredibly hostile school climates and high rates of bullying and harassment, which can impact not only their well-being but also educational outcomes. In a national survey of LGBTQ high school students, 84% of transgender students reported being victimized due to their gender identity and, compared to their cisgender LGB peers, they were more likely to report missing school because they felt unsafe or uncomfortable and less likely to report that were planning to complete high school. Source: GLSEN. (2022). Improving School Climate for Transgender and Nonbinary Youth. (accessed May 2, 2022).

[15] See, Bostock v. Clayton Cnty., 140 S. Ct. 1731, 1747 (2020); Grimm v. Gloucester Cnty. Sch. Bd., 972 F.3d 586, 616 (4th Cir. 2020), as amended (Aug. 28, 2020); e.g., Schwenk v. Hartford, 204 F.3d 1187, 1200-01 (9th Cir. 2000) (interpreting Gender Motivated Violence Act); Whitaker By Whitaker v. Kenosha Unified Sch. Dist. No. 1 Bd. of Educ., 858 F.3d 1034, 1047 (7th Cir. 2017) (Title IX); Evancho v. Pine-Richland Sch. Dist., 237 F. Supp. 3d 267, 288 (W.D. Pa. 2017); M.A.B. v. Bd. of Educ. of Talbot Cnty., 286 F. Supp. 3d 704, 719 (D. Md. 2018) (Title IX). See also Parents for Privacy v. Barr, 949 F.3d 1210, 1239-40 (9th Cir. 2020) (Title IX); Doe by & through Doe v. Boyertown Area Sch. Dist., 897 F.3d 518, 535 (3d Cir. 2018) (Title IX).

[16] Exec. Order No. 13988, 86 Fed. Reg. 7023 (Jan 20, 2021); see also Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Application of Bostock v. Clayton County to Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (Mar. 26, 2021),

[17] Center for American Progress, Fair Play: The Importance of Sports Participation for Transgender Youth 13-16 (Feb. 8, 2021) [CAP Report], available at

[18] David Crary & Lindsay Whitehurst, Lawmakers can’t cite local examples of trans girls in sports, Associated Press (Mar. 3, 2021),

[19]  CAP Report, supra note 10, at 14-16.

[20] List of bills active in state legislatures restricting healthcare for transgender youth:

S.B. 5, H.B. 150, S.B. 184, H.B. 266 (Alabama); S.B. 1045, H.B. 2608 (Arizona); H.B. 211 (Florida); H.B. 401 (Georgia); H.F. 193 (Iowa); H. 675 (Idaho); H.B. 1121 (Indiana); H.B. 2210 (Kansas); H.B. 253 (Kentucky); H.B. 570 (Louisiana); H.B. 2649 (Missouri); S.B. 2728, H.B. 1147 (Mississippi); S.B. 514 (North Carolina); H.B. 454 (Ohio); S.B. 583, S.B. 676, H.B. 3240 (Oklahoma); H.B. 4047 (South Carolina); S.B. 657, H.B. 578, H.B. 2835, S.B. 2696 (Tennessee); S.B. 915, A.B. 977 (Wisconsin); H.B. 2171 (West Virginia)

Source: ACLU, Legislation Affecting LGBT Rights Across the Country: Restricting healthcare for transgender youth. (May 13, 2022), available at

[21] There is a growing consensus among expert and medical organizations on that gender-affirming health care is medically necessary, this includes the following: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG); World Medical Association (WMA); American Medical Association (AMA); Pediatric Endocrine Society; Endocrine Society; American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP); World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH); American Public Health Association (APHA); and American Psychological Association (APA). Transgender Legal Defense and Education Fund. (n.d.). Medical Organization Statements on transgender health care – trans health project. Medical Organization Statements on Transgender Health Care – Trans Health Project. Retrieved May 20, 2022, from

[22] USTS Report, available at Error! Hyperlink reference not valid.

[23] Bränström, R. & Pachankis, J. E. (Oct 4, 2019). “Reduction in Mental Health Treatment Utilization Among Transgender Individuals After Gender-Affirming Surgeries: A Total Population Study.” Available at

[24] The Trevor Project, Gender-Affirming Care for Youth (January 29, 2020), available at

[25] List of bills active in state legislatures restricting access to inclusive curriculum:

H.B. 322 (Alabama); H.B. 2011, S.B. 1045, H.B. 2161, H.B. 2285 (Arizona); S.B. 1834, H.B. 1557 (Florida); H.B. 1158 (Georgia); S.F. 2024, H.F. 2054, H.F. 2053 (Iowa); H.B. 5505 (Illinois); H.B. 1040, H.B. 1228, H.B. 1231 (Indiana); H.B. 14 (Kentucky); H.B. 570 (Louisiana); S.B. 2679, S.B. 2881 (Mississippi); H.B. 1755, S.B. 645, H.B. 2189 (Missouri); A. 1418, A. 585 (New Jersey); S.B. 1142, S.B. 1654, H.B. 1888, S.B. 657, S.B. 615 (Oklahoma); H. 7138, H. 7539, S. 2516 (Rhode Island); S.B. 900, H.B. 4605 (South Carolina); S.B. 2777, H.B. 2633, H.B. 0800, S.B. 1216 (Tennessee); S.B. 20, H.B. 988 (Virginia); S.B. 498, H.B. 4016 (West Virginia)

Source: ACLU, Legislation Affecting LGBT Rights Across the Country: Other school or curriculum restrictions (May 13, 2022), available at

[26] Transgender students are being impacted by curriculum censorship bills that restrict LGBTQ+ inclusive curriculum, two of which have been signed into law in 2022. Citation after first sentence: H.B. 322 (Alabama) and H.B. 1557 (Florida). Four states still have so-called “No Promo Homo” laws. GLSEN. (2022). GLSEN Navigator: Inclusive Curricular Standards Policies. (Accessed May 3, 2022).

[27] GLSEN. (2018). Laws Prohibiting “Promotion of Homosexuality” in Schools: Impacts and Implications (Research Brief). New York: GLSEN. Available at

[28] Ibid.


[30] The Trevor Project. (2022). 2022 National Survey on LGBTQ Youth Mental Health. Available at

[31] See, e.g., GLSEN, Gender Affirming and Inclusive Athletics (2021),